Most members of the Violet
family, spread by either surface stolons (Above Ground Horizontal Stems) or
rhizomes (Underground Horizontal Stems). A few do not have these,
but rather have a slender vertical tap root, often with fine branching
roots branching from it. Those with tap roots are considered
"Violas" or "Field Pansies" They are still members of the violet family,
but have a different common name.
Does the plant
have a slender taproot, or a thick horizontal rhizome (underground stem)
> 3 mm thick?
(E1), Slender Taproot
(Field-Pansy / Viola)
(E2), Rhizome > 3 mm thick
Or you can bypass the key and go directly to
any of the species below